Lung Diseases/Respiratory Illnesses

Cancer and Obesity: Do I Have Cancer?

Cancer and Obesity: Do I Have Cancer?
By Dr. Naresh Parajuli

Cancer and Obesity

Does obesity increase the risk of cancer?


Obesity is measured in terms of body mass index (BMI).

BMI determines whether weight is in healthy range or is overweight or obese.

BMI = weight/height squared; For example, for a person weighing 80 kg and 170 m tall, BMI = 27.6

One is underweight if the BMI is less than 18.5

A person is said to have a healthy BMI if it is between 18.5 and 24.9

When BMI is between 25 to 29.9, it is defined as overweight

When the BMI is 30 or higher, the person is said to be obese.

How does obesity increase the risk of cancers?

Obesity increases the risk of cancer in a few ways:

  • Fat tissue in the body produces excess amounts of oestrogen. High levels of oestrogen increases the risk of breast, endometrial, bowel and some other cancers.
  • Obese people have high levels of insulin and insulin-like substances in their blood. These substances may promote the development of certain tumors.
  • Fat cells produce hormones called adipokines that may stimulate growth of certain cancers.
  • Obese people are said to have chronic low-level inflammation which is associated with increased risk of cancer.

What are the cancers associated with obesity?

Obesity is associated with increased risk of cancer of:

  • Esophagus
  • Thyroid
  • Colon and rectum
  • Kidney
  • Pancreas
  • Gallbladder
  • Breast (after menopause)
  • Uterus

What other diseases are associated with obesity?

Besides cancer, obesity is a major risk factor for many diseases including:

  • Diabetes
  • Heart diseases
  • High blood pressure
  • Arthritis
  • Sleep apnoea
  • Depression
  • Asthma
  • Gallbladder problems

How common is obesity?

Obesity has become an epidemic globally. According to World Health Organization (WHO):

  • Obesity has more than doubled since 1980 worldwide.
  • In 2014, more than 1.9 billion adults, 18 years and older, were overweight. Of these over 600 million were obese.
  • 39% of adults aged 18 years and over were overweight in 2014, and 13% were obese.

In the USA, about two-thirds of adults and nearly one-third of children are either overweight or obese.

Australia is today ranked as one of the fattest nations in the developed world. If weight gain continues at current levels, by 2025, close to 80% of all Australian adults and a third of all children will be overweight or obese (MODI).

If the obesity epidemic continues at the present state, despite the new advances in diagnosis and treatment of cancers, the number of cancer cases will increase significantly taking also into account the increasing life expectancy of people all over the world.

According to WHO, one-third of all cancer cases are preventable. The best way to prevent cancer is by adopting healthy lifestyle like eating a healthy diet, exercising regularly, maintaining a healthy body weight, quitting smoking, and reducing/quitting alcohol.

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Babywearing and Baby carriers

Babywearing and Baby carriers

Babywearing and Baby carriers

About Babywearing


Babies have been worn for thousands of years in pieces of cloth tied to the parent's body.


Babies who are worn cry less, experience less colic, learn more, and are easier to get to sleep. Babywearing helps regulate the baby's breathing, temperature and heart rate. Parents who wear their babies are more productive, have less stressful outings and travel. Babywearing is good exercise. Breastfeeding is more convenient when baby is worn in a sling.

Types of baby carriers

Baby Slings

Ring Slings

A ring sling is basically a long rectangular piece of fabric with 2 rings sewn on one end. The tail of the sling is threaded through the two rings and back through one of the rings. The baby's weight creates dynamic tension and locks the fabric in placed between the two rings.

Shoulder type

The way in which the rings are attached to the fabric will change the way in which the fabric sits on the shoulder. There are infinite combinations of pleats, gathers, and folds that can be fed through the two rings. Different methods will create a wider or narrower shoulder, and more or less spread on the back.

Open Tail VS Closed tail

The tail of a ring sling is the fabric that hangs down loose through the rings. The fabric may either be left loose, which is called an "open tail", or it can be folded into a "closed tail", a narrow strap of fabric. An open tail sling is more adjustable, you can pull on each edge of the fabric to tighten either the top rail of the sling (around the baby's shoulders) or the bottom rail of the sling (between your and the baby's body). A closed tail sling creates a handle that you can pull on to tighten the entire sling at once. Tightening the individual rails is more difficult in a closed tail sling.

Padded rails, padded shoulder, unpadded

Ring slings are available either unpadded, with padded rails, a padded shoulder, or any combination. Most common commercially available ring slings have a closed tail with padded rails, which is the least user friendly combination. Overly padded rails are more difficult to adjust, since the padding can not be pulled through the rings easily.

Pouch/Ring Sling Hybrid

The pouch/ring sling hybrid is a combination of a ring sling with a curved seam like a pouch sling (see pouch sling category below). The hybrid sling can have any shoulder type, and may be padded or unpadded, closed or open tail. Hybrids are usually narrower than ring slings, since the curved seam creates a deeper pocket for the baby. Hybrid slings are sometimes folded in half like a pouch sling, before attaching the rings at the shoulder, which also creates more of a pocket for the baby.

Ring Sling Fabrics

Ring Slings can be made of almost any fabric. Commonly available slings are made of bottom weight woven cotton and cotton blends, twill, sateen, denim and linen. Less common fabrics include jersey knit cotton, silk, wool, cashmere. The wrong side of the fabric will show in the tail of the sling, so if a ring sling is made of a single layer of fabric, it is important that both sides of the fabric be attractive. Ring slings can be made reversible and more supportive by using two layers of fabric.


The rings used for a ring sling should be tested and made specifically for the purpose. Thin rings, or those with weld marks, are not appropriate and may bend or break under the pressure. Thin rings can bend and slip through one another. Rings with rough weld marks may be abrasive and weaken the fabric.


Ring Sling length is largely based on the wearer's preference. Ring slings can be as short as above hip level, or as long as knee length. If your sling has a pocket, it is good to have the pocket positioned at approximately hip level so that you can reach it easily. Most ring slings are one size fits most, so unless you are very petite or plus sized, you can probably wear almost any ring sling.

Pouch Slings

Fitted Pouches

Fitted, or sized, pouch slings are a simple tube of fabric with one curved end where the baby's bottom is positioned. The tube is folded in half in on itself to form a pocket for the baby. Fitted pouch slings are typically available in 4 to 10 lengths depending on the brand. The more sizes the better, because a snug, high fit is important for the comfort of the wearer. The size of the pouch is determined by the size of the person wearing it, not the size of the baby. It is common for new pouch sling users to wear the pouch too loose.

Adjustable Pouches

Adjustable pouches are the same tube style of sling as a fitted pouch sling, but they have a method of adjusting the length, so that one pouch will adjust over 3 or 4 sizes. This makes the sling wearable through weight gain and loss, and sharable between different caregivers. Each brand will have it's own method of adjustment, available adjustment methods are snaps, zippers, Velcro, or drawstrings. There are also some "semi adjustable" pouches that have a smaller degree of adjustment with a single button.

Pouch Fabrics

Pouches can be made of almost any fabric. Twill, sateen, and polar fleece are the most commonly used fabrics, but you can also find pouches made of jersey knit, silk, wool, hemp, or many other fabrics. If the fabric used is stretchy lengthwise, it is necessary for the length of the pouch to be shorter because the weight of the baby will stretch the sling out. A less stretchy fabric is more supportive for a heavier baby, and you always want the more stretchy direction of the fabric to run widthwise, not lengthwise. Pouches can also be made reversible, with two different fabrics.

Padded Pouches

Most pouches are unpadded, but there are some available that have light padding along one edge of the sling. This is mainly used in the hip carry, it cushions the back of the baby's legs. The padding is also useful for young babies without head control, the padding is worn on the outer rail of the sling and can prop the head up slightly.

Pouch/Wrap Hybrid carriers

Generally made of a very stretchy knit fabric, this type of carrier system usually is made up of one or two fitted pouches, and a short support sash that can be wrapped around the torso, or over one shoulder. Usually more comfortable for lightweight infants, they aren't supportive enough for babies over about 18 lbs. A more versatile alternative to the pouch/wrap hybrid is a stretchy knit wrap.


A wrap is a long narrow piece of fabric that can be used in many different positions and can be wrapped around the wearer's body in many different ways.

Stretchy Wraps

Stretchy wraps are made out of cotton or cotton/lycra knit fabric. They are 5 to 6 yards long by about 25 inches wide. Stretchy wraps are most suitable for newborn front carries. Because of the stretchiness of the fabric, you can wrap your self first, and then stretch the fabric and pop the baby in an upright position against your chest. Stretchy wraps aren't suitable for a heavy baby; they tend to sag very quickly.

Woven Wraps

Woven wraps are probably the most versatile, supportive and comfortable carrier of them all. They also take much longer to master, but for a dedicated babywearer with an older child, it is worth it. Woven wraps are available in all lengths from 2.5 to 6 yards long. The length of wrap that you want will depend upon both your size and the positions and wrapping method that you want to carry your child in. They are made of cotton, wool, silk, or hemp. You can find excellent online instructions for the many different methods of wrapping.

Asian Inspired Baby Carriers

Mei Tai

The Mei Tai consists of a usually rectangular center body piece, with 4 long straps, one coming off of each corner. The top two straps go over the shoulders, and the bottom two straps go around the wearer's hips/waist. There are different methods of tying the shoulder straps. They can go over the shoulders like back pack straps, or be crossed over the chest or back of the wearer. The mei tai is typically worn on the wearer's front or back with the baby facing in toward the wearer, though it can be used on the hip or facing out on the front for short periods. Straps can be narrow or wide, padded or unpadded.


The Onbuhimo is similar to the Mei Tai, but it has just shoulder straps, no waist straps. There is a ring or loop at each hip that the shoulder straps are threaded through after being wrapped over the wearer's shoulders. The straps can be worn like the Mei Tai, either ruck sack style or crossed. The onbu is usually used as a back carrier with the baby facing the wearer, though it can be used on the front as well.


The podaegi and Hmong are similar to the Mei Tai, but generally have a larger, wider body piece (called a blanket) that extends past the wearer's hips, with very long shoulder straps and no waist straps. The Podaegi can be tied over the shoulders like the Mei Tai, or just around the torso above the bust.

Structured Carriers

Back packs

Usually have an aluminum frame with a nylon seat for the baby to sit in. They are suitable for babies that can sit up unassisted. Bulky and heavy, and usually requires assistance to get the baby on the wearer's back.

Hip carriers

Mei Tai style carriers with a buckle around the waist, and a single shoulder strap designed to be worn diagonally across the body, with an older baby on the hip. Many can only be worn on one specific shoulder or the other.

Structured Asian Inspired Carriers

Basically a Mei Tai with buckles, snaps or clips on the waist band and shoulder straps. Widely available for newborns, there are also structured carriers that are suitable for toddlers and preschoolers. Very mainstream looking and accepted by a wider audience than the more traditional baby carriers.

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Author Bio
Sara Gower, President, Slinglings Baby Slings

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Thoughts on Asthma Medication and Pregnancy

Thoughts on Asthma Medication and Pregnancy

Thoughts on Asthma Medication and Pregnancy

By: Diana Statham

An asthma patient has particularly sensitive air passages, or airways, resulting in difficult breathing for the patient when these air passages are irritated from an introduced substance or atmospheric change.

Asthma medications frequently need to be reviewed by a patient's physician in order to ensure that the medication continues to be effective for the patient in controlling and preventing the onset of asthma attacks.

Many patients will require not just a preventative or reactive medication, but a tailored combination of both types of medications in order to provide them with maximum relief from their illness. Most physicians agree that the desired outcome it to get the maximum relief from the minimum amount of medication.

There is currently no cure available for asthma, however new discoveries in the medical research field are increasing the medications and techniques used to monitor and treat asthma in patients with the disease.

Among both children and adults, asthma is one of the most common chronic illnesses in countries including the United States and much of Europe. Because asthma is considered a chronic illness, treatment regimens for patients must be followed accordingly in order to reduce the affects and ongoing health problems that can result from mismanagement of the condition.

Pregnant women who suffer from asthma need to monitor and treat their asthma correctly, not only for their own health but for that of their unborn child. It is perhaps never more important for a woman asthmatic to stay in touch with their treating physician than when they are pregnant.

Although there is much concern of the safety of medications taken during pregnancy, most of the commonly used asthma medications have been proven to be both safe and effective. Although no new asthma medications (or other medications, for that matter) will ever undergo direct testing on pregnant women due to the serious risks and implications facing the developing company.

Some asthma medications have proven through repeated usage over many years, that they are not only effective in treating asthma and safe for the unborn child, but also that they provide protection of the unborn child from afflictions like oxygen deprivation that might occur as a result of the mother's asthma condition.

Physicians and researchers agree that it is imperative for pregnant women to continue their treatment plan for their asthma. There is no risk associated with treatment medications that is large enough to counteract the benefits to the unborn baby as a result of keeping its mother healthy.


Author Bio
Diana for Complete guide to asthma and asthma treatment.

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Cabbage | Red Cabbage | Health Benefits of Cabbage | Red Cabbage Juice Benefits | Red Cabbage Soup Diet

Cabbage | Red Cabbage | Health Benefits of Cabbage | Red Cabbage Juice Benefits | Red Cabbage Soup Diet

Submitted by: Medico News

Red Cabbage is very low in Saturated Fat and Cholesterol. It is also a good source of Thiamin, Riboflavin, Folate, Calcium, Iron and Magnesium, and a very good source of Dietary Fiber, Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Vitamin K, Vitamin B6, Potassium and Manganese.

One cup of chopped crimson will add about 50 milligrams of vitamin C, as well as doses of fiber, folate and potassium. Studies have also revealed that a high intake of cruciferous vegetables such as cabbage offers protection from some cancers.

Health Benefits of Red Cabbage: It’s high in Vitamins A and C

Vitamins A and C are vitamins with strong antioxidant properties and red cabbage is a good source of both, particularly vitamin C. One serving provides three-quarters of the daily recommended quantity of this vitamin which is important for maintaining healthy skin and connective tissue. Who says citrus fruits are the only good source of vitamin C?

Health Benefits of Red Cabbage: It’s a Real Diet Food

Red cabbage is a guilt-free food if you’re a calorie counter. One cup of red cabbage has under thirty fat-free calories. The relatively high fiber content of red cabbage makes it a filling and satisfying side dish. No wonder the cabbage soup diet was so popular!

Health Benefits of Red Cabbage: It’s Better than It’s Green Cousin

Medicinal properties

In European folk medicine, cabbage leaves are used to treat acute inflammation. A paste of raw cabbage may be placed in a cabbage leaf and wrapped around the affected area to reduce discomfort. Some claim it is effective in relieving painfully engorged breasts in breastfeeding women.

Cabbage contains significant amounts glutamine, an amino acid, which has anti-inflammatory properties.

It is a source of indol-3-carbinol, or I3C, a compound used as an adjuvent therapy for recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, a disease of the head and neck caused by human papillomavirus (usually types 6 and 11) that causes growths in the airway that can lead to death.

Health Benefits of Cabbage

1. Red cabbage contains beneficial protective phytochemicals such as indole-3-carbinole (I3C), sulforaphane, and indoles. Indole-3-carbinole (I3C) is plays an essential role in reducing the risk of breast cancer. These compunds are also required for regulating the formation and function of estrogen.

2. Cabbage belongs to the Cruciferae family of vegetables and has three major varieties, namely green, Savoy and red.

3. Cabbage has numerous health benefits. Researches and studies have revealed that red cabbage has higher amounts of nutrients and is beneficial for treating cancer, ulcers and various other health disorders.

4. Cabbage is a muscle builder, blood cleanser and eye strengthener.

5. The juice of fresh raw cabbage has been proven to heal stomach ulcer.

6. Cabbage is rich in iron and sulfur.

7. Juice of fresh cabbage is effective in treating fungus infection(due to it sulfur content).

8. Cabbage can lower serum cholesterol.

Modern science has proven beyond a reasonable doubt that the health benefits and therapeutic value of cabbage, which also plays a role in the inhibition of infections and ulcers. Cabbage extracts have been proven to kill certain viruses and bacteria in the laboratory setting. Cabbage boosts the immune system’s ability to produce more antibodies. Cabbage provides high levels of iron and sulphur, minerals that work in part as cleansing agents for the digestive system.

There are many different varieties of cabbage, so please, be brave and innovative. Green cabbage is the most popular, common and of course the one we are most familiar with. Take a walk on the wild side with Savoy cabbage. With yellow crinkled leaves, you can use this variety of cabbage as an alternate in many recipes. Let’s not forget Bok Choy, a routine addition to Chinese recipes that has a sweet, light, celery type familiarity. Red Cabbage. It goes without saying in that it simply has to be good for you given all that beautiful plant pigment where the majority of nutrition is stored. Red cabbage is good in salads and is commonly pickled. Napa cabbage has a mild sweet taste and is incredible in stir fry dishes.

Whatever your choice of cabbage may be, enjoy a serving at least once a week along with your other valuable and health promoting cruciferous vegetables. Try to cook your cabbage lightly. Steaming and quick stir fry dishes are considered to be the best methods for preserving the power packed natural nutrition given so freely by Mother Nature. Cabbage soup anyone?

Nutritive Values of Cabbage :

1. Vitamin A : 80 I.U.

2. Vitamin c : 50 mg.

3. Calcium : 46 mg.

4. Phosphorus : 31 mg.

5. Potassium : 140 mg.

6. Carbohydrates : 5.3 gm.

7. Protein : 1.4 gm.

8. Calories : 24

About the Author: Written by Medical News | Cancer News :

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A Helpful Tool For People Searching For Clinical Research Trials



Sometimes the search for a good doctor can be quite nerve wracking even under the best of circumstances, but the emotional burden becomes even greater when searching for doctors who are participating in clinical trials.

Trial Reach and CureClick know this; so they developed a tool which makes the search for clinical research trials a bit easier.

Last July CureClick and Trial Reach asked if I would like to help out with this task; since I'm a CureClick Ambassador I was happy to help.

At this very moment you can use the Trial Reach Clinical Trials Search Tool that I embedded in the sidebar of Living Fit, Healthy and Happy(SM).

The clinical trials search tool is absolutely amazing! The tool is designed so that users can search for any clinical trial for any condition. Then the tool provides relevant results based on the user answering a few questions. Now you can search for clinical trials that best fit your needs.

Although I receive a small one time payment for installing the Trial Reach Clinical Trials Search Tool on Living Fit, Healthy and Happy(SM), the potential benefit to all of you is what inspired me to install it on this website. So, please take the time to use it. And tell all of your family and friends about it, too!

To learn more about my relationship with CureClick and why I'm talking about clinical trials, please click on this link.


God is the beginning and the end. God is God!


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"A Helpful Tool For People Searching For Clinical Research Trials" copyright © 2016 Living Fit, Healthy and Happy(SM). All Rights Reserved.



5 Tips For Healthy Lungs

5 Tips For Healthy Lungs

Submitted by: Kya Grace

Like every other organ of your body, your lungs need attention too. Breathing is the most important means of survival and the lungs help us to do so. It is therefore extremely essential that we take proper care of them and prevent them from getting damaged. They are an indispensible part of your life and any negligence on your part can turn out to be fatal. This article will particularly deal in the ways and means which can be adopted to maintain a healthy pair of lungs so that you can breathe easy and live longer.

Avoid smoking: Smoking is the worst kind of news for your lungs. If you are a smoker, it is highly recommended that you stop immediately. COPD, Emphysema and Lung Cancer can be the resultant effects of a smoke infested pair of lungs. If you do not smoke but are always amidst smokers, there are equal chances of you to being exposed to such lung infections. Passive smoking is as harmful as active smoking and it is important that you move away immediately when you are surrounded by people who are smoking. Try and dissuade any friend or family member who you notice smoking.

Breathing exercises: Practice regular breathing exercises in the form of yoga. You could also begin paying a wind instrument so that you can successfully increase the capacity of your lungs. If the lungs work with their full capacity, then they can optimally supply the body with oxygen. The different parts of the human body require oxygen to carry out the regular metabolic processes. Regular exercising can also help to increase your lung capacity so try and skip the idea of being lazy at home. Climb up and own the stairs at east five times a day.

Eat right: A healthy diet is absolutely indispensible for the well being of your lungs. Try and include a lot of antioxidants in your diet like apples, broccoli and other fruits and vegetables which will help to restore your lungs and enable them to function properly.

Clear mucus and phlegm: When you catch a cold, your lungs become damp due to the accumulation of a lot of mucus as well as phlegm in them. This happens mainly due to the intake of food which encourages the growth of mucus like dairy products and ice cream. It is therefore extremely essential for you to avoid these whenever you are suffering from cold and cough.

Get in touch with a doctor: If you are already suffering from any lung ailment like asthma, you need to be in touch with a medical practitioner at a regular basis. They will guide you as to how you can be on your guard to avoid breathing trouble and what you can do if you face a problem all of a sudden. You must never neglect a problem but try and address it soon enough so that it gets eradicated from the root itself.

If you are able to follow the above steps religiously, you will surely live a better life with stronger lungs.

About the Author: If you would like to book a Personal Trainer for a free Personal Training sessioin, visit Personal Trainers in Sydney.

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What You Need to Know About Lung Cancer and the Treatment of Lung Cancer

What You Need to Know About Lung Cancer and the Treatment of Lung Cancer

Submitted by: Dr. Tony Talebi

Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers that people have at the moment. It is also one of the most deadly cancers because it metastases.

Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers that people have at the moment. It is also one of the most deadly cancers because it metastases. This makes the diagnosis difficult therefore making the treatment of lung cancer even harder. Most people do not exhibit the symptoms of lung cancer and will admit that they discovered it during a routine chest X-ray. This is one of the many ways that are used to test for this disease. There are many other sophisticated methods but a majority of doctors use this method. The development, management and treatment of lung cancer is one of the field that is seeing a lot of innovation and the hemotology board review course explains these developments for people who would want to find out more on this disease.

Discovering the cancer in its early stages is an advantage because the cancer would not have spread to other parts of the body. This makes the treatment of lung cancer difficult. There are two main types of lung cancer; non small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer. It is crucial to know the type that you have because it determines the treatment of lung cancer that you will have to go through. The main cause of lung cancer is smoking, actively and passively. It causes small cell type of lung cancer that is more severe than the non- small cell type. To understand the difference between these two types it is essential to get resources that will help you discover like the hemotology board review course that extensively covers the classification and even the treatment of lung cancer. Another excellent resource would be the hemotology book review that gives simple explanations on this disease and many other of its kind.

The treatment of lung cancer is determined by the stage of the cancer and the medical history of the patient. In its early stages lung cancer will be limited to the lung. This is what is known as stage one. In the next stage the cancer affects the lungs and nymph nodes. As the cancer progresses it affects other parts of the body and this is usually the last stage. When treatment of lung cancer begins when it is limited to the lung it is easier.

Treatment of lung cancer includes surgery that you have to qualify for. Cancer educational videos explain the different types of surgeries that you can have as treatment for cancer. The hemotology board review course goes into detail. Therefore, if you want to find information you can easily do so. The doctors observe the health of the patient to determine whether this would be an excellent option for them. Radiation is used in combination with other treatment or exclusively when you do not qualify for surgery. Chemotherapy is also used as treatment of lung cancer. Studies show that a combination of chemotherapy and palliative care for the treatment of lung cancer was effective for people who had non- small cell lung cancer. This treatment was seen to improve the quality of life of the patients.

About the Author: Dr. Tony Talebi is the author of this article on Home Medical Products. Find more information on Blood Pressure Cuff here Visit for more information.

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Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Usually Diagnosed In People 40 Years Old Or In The Senior Years

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Usually Diagnosed In People 40 Years Old Or In The Senior Years

Submitted by: Connie Limon

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) develops slowly over many years sometimes before you notice symptoms such as “feeling short of breath.” Cigarette smoking is the most common cause of COPD. It can also be caused by breathing in lung irritants like pollutions, dust, or chemicals over a long period of time.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is usually diagnosed in people 40 years old or older, and is a major cause of death and illness throughout the world. In the U.S.A., chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is the 4th leading cause of death. There is no cure for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It is not a contagious disease. Damage to airways and lungs cannot be reversed. There are only things you can do to feel better and slow the damage to your lungs.

In a healthy person airways of the lungs are clear and open and the air sacs are small, elastic, and springy. In people diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, the airways and air sacs lose their shape and become floppy.

Causes of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease include:

•Cigarette smoking (most common cause)
•Breathing fumes and other pollutants that irritate and damage the lungs and airways
•Pipe, cigar and other types of tobacco smoking can cause COPD especially if the smoke is inhaled.
•People with a family history of COPD are more likely to get the disease if they smoke
•Secondhand smoke plays a role in causing COPD
•Frequent, severe lung infections in childhood may increase the risk for acquiring COPD later in life

Symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease start years before the flow of air in and out of the lungs is reduced and include:

•Cough with sputum production (most common is a cough that does not go away and coughing up lots of sputum)
•Shortness of breath especially with exercise
•Wheezing or whistling sound when you breathe
•Tightness in the chest

It is important to note that not everyone who has a cough and sputum goes on to develop chronic pulmonary obstructive disease.

A doctor looking for chronic pulmonary obstructive disease will examine you, listen to your lungs and ask you questions about your medical history. Physician questions will include what kind of lung irritants you may have been around for long periods of time and if you smoke.

A breathing test called “spirometry” may be used. It is painless and used to show how well your lungs work. Based upon this the spirometry test results, your doctor can determine if you have chronic pulmonary obstructive disease and just how severe it is. There are four levels of chronic pulmonary obstructive disease severity, they are:

•People at risk for COPD
•People with mild COPD
•People with moderate COPD
•People with severe COPD

Goals of treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease include:

•To relieve symptoms with no or minimal side effects from the treatments
•To slow progress of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
•To prevent complications from the disease
•To improve overall health

The exact treatment plan for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease can be different for each person and is based on whether symptoms are mild, moderate or severe.

Treatments used for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease include:

•Medications such as bronchodilators that work by relaxing the muscles around the airways to open them up and make it easier to breathe. Bronchodilators are inhaled directly into the lungs via an inhaler
•Pulmonary or lung rehabilitation
•Oxygen treatment
•Treatments to manage complications or sudden onset of symptoms
•Pneumococcal vaccine may be recommended to prevent pneumonia
•Annual flu shot to avoid breathing complications from the flu

Surgery is usually done for patients with severe symptoms that do not improve from other types of treatments, and have a hard time breathing most of the time. The two types of surgery that are considered in cases of severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are:

•A bullectomy to remove a large air sac that may compress a good lung
•A lung transplant

Hospitalization may be needed if:

•You have a lot of difficulty catching your breath
•You have a hard time talking
•Your lips or fingernails turn blue or gray

Source: The American Lung Association

Disclaimer: These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. The information in this article is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease. All health concerns should be addressed by a qualified health care professional.

This article is FREE to publish with the resource box.

© 2007 Connie Limon All rights reserved

About the Author: Connie Limon Visit for an extensive list of articles all about the health and care of seniors.

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The Symptoms and Effects of Gum Disease (a.k.a. Periodontal Disease)

The Symptoms and Effects of Gum Disease (a.k.a. Periodontal Disease)

Submitted by: Dr. Pandya

Even though we refer to it as “gum disease,” there are actually a variety of types of gingival or periodontal diseases which affect a large percentage of adults at some time in their lives. In fact, research indicates that over 75 percent of people who are over 35 years of age and are living in North America have some form of periodontal disease. Yet, most of these people aren’t aware that they have any issues in their mouths because gum disease is typically absent of any symptoms until it is already doing damage to gum tissue or even to the jawbone.

Periodontal diseases fall into two main categories: Gingivitis and Periodontitis. The first is a very mild form of gum disease and is usually caused by poor oral hygiene habits and can also be halted and any damaged reversed by simply improving those habits. Periodontitis on the other hand, is much more serious and it usually results from untreated gingivitis. The gum diseases that fall under this category are infections that break down and destroy both tissues and bones. And while this kind of destruction is taking place in your mouth, there may be very little if any symptoms of the disease.

The best way to prevent or halt gum disease is to be consistent with your dental checkups, making sure you see a dentist at least once every six months or more if you are prone to dental issues. In the interim, watch for any of the following signs that could indicate that gum disease has taken hold in your mouth:

• An onset of bad breath that won’t go away, even with regular brushing and flossing.
• Gums that have started to be tender and bleed whenever you brush or floss.
• Gums that are red or swollen.
• A change in the way your teeth fit together when you bite or chew.
• Pain in your mouth when you chew your food.
• Teeth that have become sensitive.
• Teeth that have become loose or have gaps between them that didn’t exist before.
• Pus between your gums and your teeth.

If you notice any of these symptoms, get in to see a dentist as soon as possible so that any damage that has taken place can be assessed, treated and stopped. Gum disease, if left unchecked, will not go away and will continue to get worse until it has caused serious damage in your mouth and even to your overall health. Periodontal disease has been documented as a factor in other serious diseases in other parts of the body. In fact studies show that the destructive bacteria that cause gum disease can get into the blood stream and travel to the heart and lungs where it can be a factor in cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Gum disease has also been connected with diabetes, and when present in pregnant mothers, has contributed to pre-term, low birth-weight babies. The longer the bacteria that are behind gum disease goes untreated, the more destructive it becomes.

While it can do some nasty damage in your mouth and body, the good news is that gum disease can be prevented and/or stopped. Good daily oral hygiene habits and regular visits to a dentist for checkups and professional dental cleanings are the two strongest tools in the defense against gum disease. And if periodontal disease does get started, there are a variety of methods that a dentist can use to stop the onslaught of the disease and return the mouth to health…but the disease has to be diagnosed in order for that to happen.

Gum disease should be taken seriously since it can have a huge negative impact not only on your oral health but on your overall health as well. When it comes to keeping gum disease at bay, a dentist is your best and strongest ally.

About the Author: Dr. Pandya received his D.D.S. degree in 2001. He then completed additional training in Aesthetic at University of California Los Angeles. He also completed certificate in Boston Implant Institute for surgical implant and reconstructive surgeries. Dr. Pandya

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Travel Smart-Make Plans to Keep Your Body Moving

Travel Smart-Make Plans to Keep Your Body Moving

Submitted by: Michelle Stewart

I've just returned from a conference and car fatigue was the catalyst for today's post. One of the key things to remember in laying out your travel plans is to consider how to get the exercise in. When you're traveling it's not all about burning calories and keeping the energy level up---get that body moving to avoid deep vein thrombosis or DVT. DVT is the formation of alias blood clots. These clots can break off, travel through the bloodstream and lodge in the lungs. If they lodge in the lungs they're a pulmonary embolism (PE). This ailment can affect all of us, even the most seasoned road warriors whose professions make traveling a necessity and not an option.

A few years ago professional tennis player Serena Williams developed blood clots in her leg that lodged in her lungs and required surgery. Athletes considering themselves in great shape may be reluctant to consider an atypical body ailment serious. But DVT can be life-threatening and we should all take steps to avoid developing this condition.

This problem can be caused by a number of factors, and I'm going to focus on immobility which may be the result of prolonged travel and sitting in a car or on long airplane flights. Hospitalization, surgery, and obesity can also lead to immobility. Symptoms of DVT include pain, swelling, warmth and redness---you may have several of these symptoms or none of the symptoms. If any of these symptoms occur in combination with chest pain, shortness of breath and difficulty breathing, you should seek medical attention immediately.

When traveling consider wearing compression socks that will help reduce any swelling and avoid crossing your legs for prolonged periods of time. If you are driving several hours, stop every hour to walk around. If air travel is your plan, move around in the plane cabin, flex your feet and curl or press your toes down often during your trip. If you have connecting flights, take a walk through the terminal. Drink plenty of fluids and avoid dehydrating beverages such as alcohol and coffee.

When hospitalized, try to keep the foot of the bed elevated and get up and walk about as soon as you can. If post-surgery moving about is creating pain or discomfort, talk to the health professionals and take any medications that are prescribed to make you more comfortable. Doctors may also prescribe leg lifts or ankle exercises to help you avoid DVT.

Maintain an active lifestyle by including exercise as part of your daily routine. Focus on weight management by making wholesome food choices that are lower in fat and calories. Check your blood pressure regularly and if needed take steps to reduce it. If you're a smoker change your behavior and stop smoking. You may need help in weaning off of cigarettes, if so, talk to your healthcare provider about smoking cessation aids.

I'm not trying to frighten you, but I do want you to know the facts and consider how you can make choices to ensure that your travels are enjoyable and memorable for all the right reasons.

About the Author: Michelle J. Stewart MPH, RDLD/N, CDE is an experienced food and nutrition communication expert specializing in wellness with a holistic approach to living your best life. Michelle has been leading the way to a healthier you for more than 25 years. She is zealous when it comes to wellness from the inside out and empowering whomever she comes in contact with to take charge of their health and wellbeing. Her motto is "EAT LESS MOVE MORE." This article was originally published at and has been syndicated with permission. Sign up for her Free Report 10 Weight Loss Tips for Life when you visit

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