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July 2015

Top 7 Tips To Treat And Prevent Stubbed Toe

Top 7 Tips To Treat And Prevent Stubbed Toe

Submitted by: Raymond Geok Seng Lee

This little piggy went to the market. This little piggy stayed home. This little piggy smashed into the bedpost and you sat up the rest of the night, crying and cursing the throbbing digit. For all the pain they cause stubbed toes have a hard time being taken seriously. Part of the problem is that they are usually self-inflicted, most likely when you are trying to navigate a darkened room in the middle of the night. The fact that it is just your toe does not help a whole lot either. Stubbing your toe can do a lot of damage to you. You can tear soft tissue or a tendon around a toe joint or the metatarsal joint, which is where the toe attaches to the foot. You can even break a bone. So while you may joke about a stubbed toe, it is really nothing to snub. People blow it off. Then four to five years later, the toe is killing them. It turns out there is a fracture line and arthritis. Here are some tips that you can consider to adopt to prevent further damage to your toe.

1.Tread Carefully

Until you have your toe examined, try not to bend it or put pressure on it when you walk. You could have a hairline fracture, and pressure would enlarge the crack and possibly displace the bone. Shift your weight to your heel as much as possible. But do not overdo it. Overcompensating could cause problems elsewhere in the foot or in the knee or hip.

2.Open Wide

Make sure your shoe provides ample space for your injured toe. It is recommended to choose an open-toed slipper or a sandal over a closed shoe. This will help protect your toe from additional pressure.

3.Just Chill

Apply ice to your toe right away. The sooner you do so, the sooner you will reduce the swelling. That is important because swelling puts pressure on the tissues, which in turns puts pressure on the nerves within the tissues. And that contributes a great deal to the pain. It is recommended massaging the toe with an ice cube for 10 to 15 minutes every hour or two. But do not do this if you have diabetes or a circulatory problem. The ice can limit circulation in your toe.

4.Put A Hold On Heat

Do not use any type of treatment on a snubbed toe. Anything hot will immediately dilate torn blood vessels. That will lead to the build up of fluid in the toe.

5.Leave Your Toe Unwrapped

Do not bandage a stubbed toe yourself. You may not wrap it correctly and if it is fractured, you may do more harm than good. Leave this step to the professionals.

6.Attend To A Broken Nail

The impact between toe and immovable object can cause the nail to tear or break off. If the nail is still partially attached, cover it with an adhesive bandage to give it a chance to reseat itself. It does not reattach or fall off within a few days, clip off the wobbly end.

7.Keep It Up

Stay off your feet as much as you can, especially for the first 24 to 36 hours after the injury. And keep your toe elevated, even if you just have your foot resting on a box 6 inches off the floor. What you do not want is for your foot to be hanging down, with blood running into it. That will increase swelling.

About the Author: Raymond Lee is one of the foremost experts in the health and fitness industry specializing in body health, muscle development and dieting. He is currently the author of the latest edition of "Neck Exercises and Workouts." Visit for more information.

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Caring For Dry Skin

Caring For Dry Skin

Submitted by: Tracey Morgan

Most of us will suffer from dry skin in some form during our lives. It could be anything from a little flaky skin on our cheekbones or a long-term condition such as eczema, and the range of responses will vary accordingly.

For the everyday dryness, there are a number of causes and cures. There are also preventative measures we can take, and there’s a whole moisturising industry to take care of that side of things. To complicate matters there are many kinds and degrees of dryness, and it affects different people in different ways. The point at which it becomes a problem usually depends on one of two factors: appearance and sensation.

When skin dries, it can appear blotchy or red, and dead skin can be generated more quickly, causing flakes which will start to appear on clothes. While some people are prepared to live with that, the point at which it can actually become uncomfortable or painful is usually the factor that makes them seek intervention. Much of the pain is caused by the fact that normal, naturally moisturised skin has a good deal of elasticity built into it, but dry skin is more taut and rigid, meaning normal movements can give a pinching sensation when moving or stretching. In more advanced cases elasticity can be so reduced that the skin simply cracks and can even start to bleed. A common manifestation of this problem is chapped lips.

Dry skin can come from within or from the outside. Our diet and water intake can play a big part, and keeping healthy that way can prevent many minor dry skin complaints. Other times our natural production of moisturising oils underperforms or we have got a recognised condition, in which case it's best to seek medical attention. It is important to follow a sensible routine when it comes to sun damage, too, as it plays a big part in general skin damage, be it after a single overexposure or over the course of our lives. When it's dazzling, keep covered up and slap on the factor 50 – in other words, think long-term. And what's the opposite of sunshine? Yes, coldness. Going out in winter can also dry out the skin thanks to low humidity. (There's a day in March when it's absolutely fine to go out though – lap it up!)

With all these causes, it's no wonder moisturising creams and lotions are big business. But one of the reasons that they are so successful is that they do actually work as part of a dry skin care routine. Anita Roddick, founder of the Body Shop, once famously said that moisturisers are the only cosmetic that actually works. She might have been speaking in a slightly tongue-in-cheek way, but coming from someone who was making millions selling all manner of cosmetics, it's quite telling.
There is little doubt that good moisturisers that contain not only hydrating agents but also ingredients such as sun block do add up to rounded ways of keeping skin moist and maintaining a younger-looking, healthier complexion.

About the Author: Tracey has offered numerous audiences her wisdom about caring for dry skin and other unfortunate conditions that affect ones complexion. She is an authority in the area and is a guest researcher for a number of skin care clinics and different lifestyle websites.

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'Facts Up Front' 411

'Facts Up Front' 411

Submitted by: Michelle Stewart

Have you ever noticed the similarities between food and fashion? In both industries visual are highly important, along with the use of good raw materials-good ingredients for food and good fabrics in the case of fashion. Every now and then fashion flips the script-the flourishes and fasteners typically found on the back of garments will appear on the front. Buttons and zippers become part of the garment front, providing the details that make a fashion statement.

Similarly the new "Facts Up Front" nutrition labeling brings the details to the front of the package. Facts Up Front, places important information from the Nutrition Facts Panel, typically found on the back of food and beverage products right on the front of the label in a simple, clear, and easy-to-use format. "Facts Up Front" is the voluntary initiative of America's food and beverage manufacturers and food retailers in response to First Lady Michelle Obama's call to action to create a front-of-the pack labeling system that companies could easily adopt, helping busy consumers make informed decisions while food shopping.

Nutrition information displayed on the front of products highlights nutrient information - calories, saturated fat, sodium and sugar per serving - in a clear, easy-to-understand and read format. In addition the labels also show consumers information about "nutrients to encourage"-those nutrients that are often under consumed, such as fiber, iron, and potassium. However the product must include at least 10% of the encouraged nutrient to earn a place on the front label. The nutrients highlighted in the "Facts Up Front" labels are the nutrients that are essential for a balanced diet, as well as those currently under-consumed by most Americans. "Facts Up Front" is based on USDA's Dietary Guidelines and it's designed to be flexible and can accommodate changes to the Federal Dietary Guidelines.

You'll find these new labels appearing on numerous products-candy, cereals, meats, pizza crusts, beverages and more. The front of the label graphic is not simply an icon. It is a guideline to aid folks in using the on-package nutrition information to learn more about making wise choices. As part of the outreach and consumer education with "Facts Up Front," the Grocery Manufacturers Association (GMA) has launched an interactive website. The site includes tools for consumers such as a nutrition calculator, and detailed label information. Though the site includes great information, if you have limited access to the internet or are not computer savvy, you can look for options such as the in-store registered dietitians, brochures, and newsletters to learn more about the front of the label nutrition information.

Though food and fashion will continue to reflect trends, keep in mind that wise food choices and a healthy lifestyle go hand-in hand with maintaining a healthy body image and choosing fashionable garments that will compliment your personal style.

Take Away: The packages of food and beverage products include a wealth of information. The initiative to highlight key nutrients on the front of labels is an aid to grocery shoppers, helping to inform and educate them as they make buying decisions.

About the Author: Michelle J. Stewart MPH, RDLD/N, CDE is an experienced food and nutrition communication expert specializing in wellness with a holistic approach to living your best life. Michelle has been leading the way to a healthier you for more than 25 years. She is zealous when it comes to wellness from the inside out and empowering whomever she comes in contact with to take charge of their health and wellbeing. Her motto is "EAT LESS MOVE MORE" Sign up for her Free Report 10 Weight Loss Tips for Life when you visit

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The Fear Of Humiliation And Weight Loss – Is There A Link?

The Fear Of Humiliation And Weight Loss – Is There A Link?

Submitted by: Susan Megge

Recently Kirstie Alley appeared on the Oprah Winfrey Show, proudly strutting her stuff in nothing more than a lacy bikini. This appearance was made after Kirstie bravely obligated herself to such a feat approximately a year prior, when she was several pounds heavier. She was determined to lose the weight she’d gained over the years, and it appears that by going public with the announcement that she would indeed lose this weight, she successfully shed many pounds. Could it be that the fear of humiliation resulted in Kirstie’s successful weight loss? I think so, and this may be the answer for you too.

If you’ve made several unsuccessful attempts at weight loss, you may want to consider the “humiliation trick.” You see, by sharing your secret desire to lose weight with friends family and co-workers, you’ll be more determined to stick with your goals, if those you set are realistic. Perhaps you want to be “bikini-worthy” or simply fit into a pair of jeans that you haven’t worn for years because your dryer malfunctioned and shrunk them (or you put on weight – sshhh!) Whatever your goal may be, it’s important to remind yourself that if you want to achieve success, you need to be realistic. If you start out setting an unrealistic goal for yourself, you’re more likely to fail to reach that goal, which may discourage future attempts at weight loss.

Once you decide what your goal is, assign it a date (perhaps 90-120 days from now) and share this date with those closest to you. If you’re afraid to verbalize your goal, I can say with confidence that you’re not serious about losing weight. Someone very close to me once shared her secret desire to lose weight with only me and specifically said “Don’t tell anyone, though, because if I fail I don’t want anyone to know that I was trying.” What? She immediately set herself up for failure with that frame of mind. If you want to be successful, you need to be mouthy; tell many people and often. Granted, you don’t want to become a pest, but if you happen to mention a few times a week that you only have so many days left, I don’t see any harm. If people are truly your friends, and want to see you succeed, they will not grow tired of hearing about your approaching deadline. By speaking about your goal often you’ll likely not forget about your desire to lose weight, nor will your close friends.

Once you’ve put the word out there and everybody is eagerly awaiting a thinner you, get to work. Be sure to have your cupboards and refrigerator stocked with foods that are healthy and low in fat and calories. This will help you avoid the temptation to snack on foods that don’t really qualify as “healthy.”

Additionally, work on involving yourself in a regular exercise routine, which will include weight training. By working out with weights or weight resistance machines, you’ll build muscle, which is very important if your desire is to be thin. You see, muscle will raise your metabolic rate, resulting in your body burning calories, even while you’re at rest.

If you stick with the ideas I mentioned you’ll be certain to reach your weight loss goal. Not only will you receive praise and admiration from those with whom you’re close, but you’ll begin to realize that you’re capable of doing just about anything you desire. Congratulations on taking the first step to a thinner you. I wish you the very best for a successful transformation.

About the Author: Susan Megge is the founder of, a website designed to assist women as they experience weight gain. Susan, a health and fitness expert, started experiencing symptoms of perimenopause and weight gain several years ago and researched various avenues to deal with these symptoms naturally.

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Brown Packing Recalls Veal Products Because Of Possible E. Coli Contamination



The USDA's Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) has announced that Brown Packing Company, an establishment in South Holland, Illinois is recalling an undetermined amount of beef (veal) trimmings that could possibly be contaminated with E. coli O157:H7 and non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC).

The FSIS has designated this a Class I Recall of High Health Risk.

According to the press release, the raw, boneless beef (veal) trimmings were produced from Feb. 21, 2014 through July 17, 2015. The recalled products bear the establishment number “EST. 167” inside the USDA mark of inspection printed on boxes.

The following products are subject to recall:

  • Approx. 60-lb. boxes  of “DUTCH VALLEY VEAL.”
  • Various weight generically labeled combo bins of fresh of beef veal trimmings.

The company says lot code numbers printed on product labels will range from “4000” through “4313” and “5167” through “5365.”

The recalled products were shipped to retail locations and distributors in the following states:

  • Colorado
  • Illinois
  • Iowa
  • Georgia
  • Missouri
  • Louisiana
  • New Jersey
  • Ohio

"The problem was discovered by FSIS upon receiving positive test results for E. coli O157:H7 and non-O157:H7 STEC while performing verification activities at the establishment and observing other non-compliances. Additionally, it was learned that those trimmings were potentially co-mingled with other products and portions of those products were shipped to other than cooking facilities." was the statement posted on the USDA's website.

E. coli O157:H7 and non-O157 STEC are potentially deadly bacteria that can cause bloody diarrhea, dehydration and abdominal cramps 2–8 days after exposure (although the average is 3–4 days).

Most people tend to recover within a few days, but some people may develop hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), which is a type of renal failure. Although anyone may develop HUS, elderly people and young children are most susceptible. HUS is marked by decreased urine output, easy bruising and pallor. Officials suggest that people who experience these symptoms should get immediate medical treatment.

Neither nor FSIS nor the company have received confirmed reports of illnesses associated with consumption of these products. Anyone concerned about an illness should contact a healthcare provider.

FSIS and the company are concerned that some product may be frozen and in consumers' freezers.

FSIS suggests that all consumers safely prepare their raw meat products, including fresh and frozen, and only consume beef that has been cooked to a temperature of 145° F for steaks and roasts (with a three-minute rest time) and 160° F for ground product.They say The only way to confirm that beef products are cooked to a temperature high enough to kill harmful bacteria is to use a food thermometer that measures internal temperature. For more information click on this link:

Consumers with questions regarding the recall can contact Mike Jedlicka, company operations director, at (708) 849-7990.


7 But as for you, be strong and do not give up, for your work will be rewarded." 2 Chronicles 15:7

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Article Reference

USDA New Release


"Brown Packing Recalls Veal Products Because Of Possible E. Coli Contamination" copyright © 2015 Living Fit, Healthy and Happy(SM). All Rights Reserved.




Weight Lifting Safety Tips - What You Probably Don't Know

Weight Lifting Safety Tips - What You Probably Don't Know

Submitted by: Erick Spires

A most common mistake committed by those who start weightlifting is overwork. There is that inner impulse that tells you be like that muscle man next to you in the quickest way possible. So you lift more, strain your muscles more and you overwork yourself. The consequence? Torn muscles and tendons and diminished self esteem. Thus, it is important to follow safety in weightlifting to avoid such things from happening.

The concept of weight lifting is simply to increase muscle activities and speed up metabolism. This way, fat burning activity in the body is increased and lean muscles are developed. It is also very important to rest the muscles and give them time to repair themselves after an intense weightlifting activity. Doing your intensive routines twenty four/seven is not only highly dangerous, it also defeats the purpose of muscle building. Overworking your muscles does not make them bulkier but thinner.

Whenever you are not sure of what particular weight to lift or how many routines should be done in one sitting, safety in weightlifting protocol dictates that you consult a trained professional. Hire a coach that can supervise you as you do your routine. He will also teach you how to properly and safely do your exercises. If you cannot afford that, at least have a buddy or a spotter who can scrutinize your form and step in should you get caught in a bind and not be able to lift a heavier weight than you're used to. Partner with someone in the gym who can spot for you in return for you doing the same favor for him.

As you lift weights, keep on breathing. Many lifters hold their breaths as they lift weights. This is dangerous since holding your breath too long could impair the delivery of oxygen to the brain and cause you to faint. Imagine what would happen should you faint while in the middle your lift. Countless injuries would result. So maintain a regular breathing pattern as you lift the weight.

Don't forget to warm up before heading to the weights section of the gym. This is an important procedure to follow for safety in weightlifting. Warm up your muscles by running for a good five to ten minutes in the treadmill and then doing stretches to prepare your muscles for lifting the weights. Stretch your quads and glutes, your arms and back. After your strength training session, cool down by walking and stretching some more. Finally, prevent slippage of weights caused by sweaty palms by wearing weightlifting gloves. There are rubberized gloves that give secure grip to prevent yourself from sustaining an injury due to weights inadvertently slipping from your palms.

Following these safety measures will ensure that you continue to enjoy the benefits offered by strength training through the use of weights. Give your muscles a good warm up before you start your weight-lifting regimen, have someone spot you and give your muscles adequate time to repair-- all these will also let you avoid the pains sustained by those who don't follow these safety tips as they lift weights.

About the Author: Happily married father of three, fitness nut, and former professional bodybuilder. Want to learn about the best way to build muscle safely? Check out our complete and discover how can help you get fit without an expensive gym membership.

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How To Teach Your Children To Beat Stress

How To Teach Your Children To Beat Stress

Submitted by: Art Turner

We are sending our children into a future filled with stress and conflict. Parents and teachers have the responsibility to model behaviors and teach skills that will enable our children to be productive, accepting, healthy, and above all, resilient.

1. Self-understanding and acceptance

Self-esteem is a realistic estimate of your own capabilities and worth. People with high self-esteem are productive, responsive, imaginative, and attentive to the needs of others. Encourage your children to develop their natural aptitudes and interests. Set them up for success. Empower them to be more responsible.

2. Adults' understanding and acceptance

Give your children regular, focused, undivided attention. This, more than anything else, communicates your unconditional love.

3. Constructive thinking

We are what we think. Fill your language with statements that help your children see change in a positive way, to view adversity as manageable, to persist until they are successful, and to become more oriented to the needs of others. Prepare your children for the reality that others may not think or believe like they do. Teach your children to identify positive and negative feelings in themselves and others. Replacing destructive thinking with constructive thinking increases self-esteem and improves coping skills.

4. Good decision-making strategies

Making a good decision requires the ability to generate alternative solutions to a problem, predict consequences, view the problem from the perspective of others, and consider how to implement alternatives to reach a solution. Children as young as four or five can usually generate alternatives and predict consequences, but advanced decision making skills come later. Model good decision making for your children. Show children how characters in stories make decisions. Let your children make their own decisions whenever possible.

5. Stress-coping strategies

It's not too early to teach children physical relaxation exercises like breathing techniques, some forms of meditation, imagery, and muscle relaxation exercises. Help your children learn to recognize their own stress triggers and responses, and identify which relaxation methods work best for them. And help your kids laugh--read funny stories, watch age-appropriate comedies, and laugh at their jokes.

6. Good nutrition and exercise

Good nutrition optimizes the way your mind and body works. A well-functioning mind and healthy body increase our self-esteem and resiliency. Make aerobic exercise and recreation a family affair. If your children see you exercise, they are more likely to take it up themselves and develop a lifelong positive habit.

7. A sense of purpose and commitment to personal and social goals

Commitment to goals gives meaning and value to life, and a reason for existence. Children should have more than one goal, and their goals should be realistic. Teach them to be flexible in how they achieve their goals, and help them learn persistence when progress is slow.

8. Social skills and social supports

Healthy relationships build self-esteem and protect from the negative effects of stress. Help your children to build self-awareness skills and to see situations from another's point of view. Teach them to positively manage conflict and disagreement.

Resilient children grow up to be adults who have a sense of control, a positive view of change, and an ability to find meaning and value in life. Now doesn't that describe the kind of people you want to have running the world when you retire?

About the Author: Art Turner is a writer, musician, and creator of Relaxation Emporium, where you can learn more about stress, stress management, and relaxation techniques. Visit Relaxation Emporium.

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Food Nutrition Facts Just The Facts

Food Nutrition Facts Just The Facts

Submitted by: Curt Shryack

Do you enjoy a good cup of coffee in the morning before you workout? I think a lot of athletes do. The caffeine in coffee has been a good selling point for its usage. Everyone enjoys the pick me up that coffee does give.

A little known side effect of coffee is its laxative effects. Many runners will drink coffee in the morning before their daily runs and races to gain the laxative benefit of coffee.

With the wide use of sports supplements today drinking coffee before taking supplements can have adverse side effects. Some of the performance enhancing supplements that also have caffeine in them can cause stomach upset if taken after drinking coffee. People have reported diarrhea after taking performance enhancers and then drinking coffee.

Case in point, this past weekend I ran a half marathon. Before the race I had one cup of coffee. One hour prior to the race I also took a sports supplement that contains many ingredients. This supplement also contains a large amount of caffeine. Adding to the problem I also drank 32oz of a sports drink.

As the race time approached my stomach started to become upset. I started to get diarrhea and stomach upset. During the time that I usually mentally prepare for a competition I was in the bathroom.

The race started and I did not feel right. At mile 4 of the 13.1 mile race the diarrhea came back to great me. Luckily there was a gas station on the race course at this point.

After my unplanned pit stop all hopes of a good time were finished. I completed the race 20 minutes slower than I had expected. Everyone was asking me what had happened. I made a few excuses for my poor time. The real source of my problem was what I had done prior to the race.

My recommendations are not to drink coffee in the morning when you will be taking a supplement that contains large quantities of caffeine. Something in the coffee can possibly react with your sports supplements and may cause stomach upset or diarrhea.

If you are a person who does want to take a sports supplement. Test it out before the big day to find out any side effects that might be caused.

A very good piece of advice that a great coach told me was to never use anything in a competition that had not been tested during training.

About the Author: Curt Shryack is the author of Fatigue Nutrition & Endurance Exercise. Curt also has a BLOG

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5 Things to Abstain From For a Healthier You

5 Things to Abstain From For a Healthier You

Submitted by: Kya Grace

In order to be able to lead a good life, we must make sure that we choose healthy habits. We end up spending hundreds of dollars each year just visiting the doctors and taking medication due to the many ailments which continuously trouble us. If you begin to follow a healthy regime for yourself, you will realize that not only are you saving up on a lot of money, but also feeling younger and more energetic. Therefore it is extremely essential for you to stay away from some of the troublemaking agents and this article precisely deals in that subject.

Avoid alcohol: Alcohol is the major cause of various liver diseases. Too much of alcohol consumption can result in diseases like Hepatitis C, Steatosis and Cirrhosis and can hence turn out to be fatal. The symptoms of liver diseases like these can range from loss of appetite, vomiting, nausea to fever. Liver Cancer can be a possibility as well for the people who cannot put a stop to there alcoholism.

Avoid smoking: Smoking, like alcohol, not only destroys the liver but the lungs too. The combination is deadly when smoking is present along with alcoholism. As far as your lungs are concerned, smoking results in breathing trouble and if the scenario is too bad, Lung Cancer cannot be ruled out. To add to all the trouble, smoking can also increase your blood pressure thereby posing a hazard to the proper functioning of your heart.

Avoid deep fried food: Fatty food or deep fried food will inevitably bring about an increase in your cholesterol level. High cholesterol is a major reason for high blood pressure which is a growing trend among children these days thanks to their addiction to junk food. Obesity which has its roots in such fried and oily edibles has spread among the American children like an epidemic.

Avoid caffeine and energy drinks: In this highly competitive world, we are always on the edge of our seats. We do not have even a moment for ourselves because all we can think of is how to beat the others in the game. We work hard, chase profits in an insane manner and in simpler words, we hardly have a life. Sleep is considered to be a waste of time here. To rest is to fall behind. There cannot be anything which is more harmful than lack of rest. A full night’s sleep is extremely important to rejuvenate and energize your body and mind so that your performance is better the next day. Hence it is a must that you let go of the regular caffeine and the other beverages which go by the name of “energy drinks”.

Avoid being lazy: Exercise is a very important way to prevent a host of diseases from attacking you. Proper functioning of the heart and the lungs, prevention of arthritis, stability of the joints and prevention of diabetes are a few of the advantages that regular exercising has to offer.

If you try and abstain from the above mentioned vices, you will indeed be able to live a longer, better and a happier life. Start with a change today to witness a better tomorrow.

About the Author: If you want to book a session with a Personal Trainer Bondi or to sign up for a complimentary Bootcamps session, visit Boot Camps in Sydney.

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The Neurological Causes Of Alzheimer's Disease

The Neurological Causes Of Alzheimer's Disease

Submitted by: Jane Peters

The true causes of Alzheimer’s disease remain elusive. However, researchers have made progress in understanding the neurological roots of this debilitating condition.

The disease is named after Alois Alzheimer, who was the first to identify the peculiar plaques and tangles in the brain, which is characteristic of the illness. Till the final decades of the twentieth century, Alzheimer’s could be diagnosed accurately only by a post-mortem examination.

Nowadays, scientists are beginning to uncover precisely what is happening and why those characteristic tangles and plaques crop up in the brain.

Many of the symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease are caused by neurofibrillary tangles in the brain. Microscopic filaments clog the neurons. These filaments are made up of an abnormal kind of Tau protein.

In a normal brain, Tau protein bonds into microtubules and enables transmission of messages from one neuron to another. But in an Alzheimer brain, instead of bonding into message pathways, Tau protein bonds with itself. And the neuron messages go nowhere.

Since the neurons are clogged, signals from the environment are no longer transmitted the way they should be. That is why severe cognitive impairment is one of the symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease.

Scientists speculate that Tau protein malfunction which results in neurofibrillary tangles is caused by beta amyloid protein, but this is yet to be conclusively proved.

It is beta amyloid protein that causes plaques between neurons, which is the other main damage to the brain in Alzheimer’s disease.

The plaque deposits are sticky patches in the brain which contain beta amyloid protein. Plaque blocks communication pathways between neurons, which results in the memory problems and learning inabilities associated with Alzheimer’s disease.

The degree of cognitive impairment depends on the amount of plaque present. Plaque acts by interfering with the normal functioning of acetylcholine, which helps to transmit nerve messages.

Treatment for Alzheimer’s disease involves using acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, which works by blocking enzymes that consume the acetylcholine. This medication is effective during the early stages of the disease before too much plaque has already built up.

Some research seems to indicate that plaques cause tangles. One study took proteins from mice to eliminate the plaque-causing beta amyloid. They found that the proteins got rid of the tangles as well. Similar effects have been brought about by other medications as well.

Others believe that both plaques and tangles are the result of other processes. One possible culprit is swollen axons. Axons are critical for transmitting messages between neurons. When axons swell, they may block message transmission and perhaps lead to the plaques and tangles which bring on Alzheimer’s disease.

Scientists are working hard at uncovering the causes of Alzheimer’s disease, which may sooner or later lead to a comprehensive cure for this dreaded condition.

About the Author: Jane Peters is a researcher who has written on a variety of topics. Visit and for must-have information on related issues.

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